FUKUSHIMA Lives on the Line

127chap.IIIStruggle Against RadioactivityFUKUSHIMA: Lives on the Linea. April 22, 2011b. June 16, 2011Emergency evacuation preparation zonePlanned evacuation areaCautionary zoneFukushima Daiichi (No. 1) Nuclear Power PlantFukushima Daiichi (No. 1) Nuclear Power PlantFukushima Daini (No. 2) Nuclear Power PlantFukushima Daini (No. 2) Nuclear Power PlantCautionary zonePlanned evacuation areaPlanned evacuation areaGeographical areas with recommended evacuation zonesFigure 2: Evacuation Zone Following the Fukushima Daiichi (No. 1) Nuclear Reactor Accidentarea within a 20 km radius of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was designated as a “planned evacuation area” on April 22. The area included Katsurao Village, Namie Town, Iitate Village, part of Kawamata Town, and part of Minami Soma City. Then, on June 16, areas outside the planned evacuation area where annual cumulative radiation levels were predicted to exceed 20 mSv were designated as recommended evacuation zones, and policies were enacted to support each household in securing destinations for refuge (Figure 2). As of October 11, 2012, 1,846 Fukushima residents perished and 120 were missing. 18,007 homes had been destroyed, 52,001 homes had sustained 50% damage, and 144,586 had sustained partial damage. 18,464 residents were living in shelters within the prefecture and 35,892 were refugees living outside the prefecture.A multitude of medical responses were necessitated by the disaster. During the earthquake, patients were injured by toppled buildings, etc. individuals were hurt by the tsunami, hospital patients within the evacuation zone had to be transported elsewhere. Medical care was needed for those employed at the Tokyo Electric Power Company who were exposed to radiation or injured while working to contain the accidents at the power plant. Since FMU is a prefectural (public) university corporation, it was designated as the base for disaster medical assistance teams (DMAT) immediately after the disaster. The university was responsible for functioning as a hub in Fukushima Prefecture for medical care for the compound earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster because of the school's status as a "secondary emergency facility specialized in emergency radiation medicine." Looking back at the critical period during this complex disaster, this book provides an account of the medical infrastructure within Fukushima Prefecture, medical response by FMU, and public health surveys still occurring within the prefecture today. Damage Caused by the Earthquake and the Response by FMUFortunately, the student body of the university itself did not suffer any significant harm from the disaster. Some sports team members attending a training camp in Sendai city were slightly injured, but no other students, university hospital patients, or university staff were seriously injured. University facilities, despite being more than 20 years old, were not subject to any significant damage. Electrical power was not lost, but there was no water supply for eight days because of damaged caused to the water intake pipes in close proximity to the local dam.From the hypercritical period two weeks after the disaster through the critical period that followed, normal hospital operation and scheduled surgeries were halted